Workers who have split their careers between the United States and a foreign country may not be eligible for retirement, survivor, or disability insurance (pensions) benefits from either or both countries because they have not worked long enough or recently enough to meet the minimum requirements. Under an agreement, these workers may be entitled to U.S. or foreign partial benefits based on combined or "aggregated" coverage credits from both countries. Anyone who wants more information about the U.S. Social Security Totalization Agreements program, including details of some existing agreements, should contact the following: if you qualify for U.S. and Portuguese Social Security benefits and do not need the agreement to qualify for either benefit, the amount of your benefit in the United States may be reduced. This is the result of a provision in the United States. A law that can affect how your benefit is calculated if you are also receiving a pension based on work that has not been covered by U.S. Social Security. For more information, see the Windfall Elimination Commission publication (publication number 05-10045). If you are outside the United States, you can write to us at the address in the "More Information" section. The agreement with Italy is a derogation from other US agreements, as it does not contain a self-employed workers rule.
As in other agreements, its fundamental criterion of coverage is the rule of territoriality. However, coverage for expatriate workers is mainly based on the nationality of the worker. If a U.S. citizen employed or self-employed in Italy was covered by U.S. Social Security without the agreement, he or she will remain covered by the U.S. program and exempt from Italian coverage and contributions. In general, persons are not obliged to take measures with regard to aggregation benefits under an agreement until they are prepared to apply for a pension, survivor`s or invalidity. A person wishing to claim benefits under a tabling agreement may do so with any social security service in the United States or abroad. Note In addition to retirement, survivors` and disability benefits, Portuguese social security taxes cover several other programmes, including sickness (temporary disability), maternity, accidents and sickness at work, unemployment and family allowances. As a result, workers exempted from Portuguese social security by the agreement do not pay social security taxes for these programs and generally cannot receive benefits from them. If the agreement exempts you from Portuguese coverage, you and your employer may want to agree on alternative coverage.
Prior to the agreement, workers, employers, and the self-employed could be required, in certain circumstances, to pay social security taxes in the United States and Portugal for the same work. .